Laravel - polska dokumentacja

Nieoficjalne tłumaczenie dla wersji 4.0

Security

Configuration

Laravel aims to make implementing authentication very simple. In fact, almost everything is configured for you out of the box. The authentication configuration file is located at app/config/auth.php, which contains several well documented options for tweaking the behavior of the authentication facilities.

By default, Laravel includes a User model in your app/models directory which may be used with the default Eloquent authentication driver. Please remember when building the Schema for this Model to ensure that the password field is a minimum of 60 characters.

If your application is not using Eloquent, you may use the database authentication driver which uses the Laravel query builder.

Storing Passwords

The Laravel Hash class provides secure Bcrypt hashing:

Hashing A Password Using Bcrypt

$password = Hash::make('secret');

Verifying A Password Against A Hash

if (Hash::check('secret', $hashedPassword))
{
    // The passwords match...
}

Checking If A Password Needs To Be Rehashed

if (Hash::needsRehash($hashed))
{
    $hashed = Hash::make('secret');
}

Authenticating Users

To log a user into your application, you may use the Auth::attempt method.

if (Auth::attempt(array('email' => $email, 'password' => $password)))
{
    return Redirect::intended('dashboard');
}

Take note that email is not a required option, it is merely used for example. You should use whatever column name corresponds to a "username" in your database. The Redirect::intended function will redirect the user to the URL they were trying to access before being caught by the authentication filter. A fallback URI may be given to this method in case the intended destination is not available.

When the attempt method is called, the auth.attempt event will be fired. If the authentication attempt is successful and the user is logged in, the auth.login event will be fired as well.

To determine if the user is already logged into your application, you may use the check method:

Determining If A User Is Authenticated

if (Auth::check())
{
    // The user is logged in...
}

If you would like to provide "remember me" functionality in your application, you may pass true as the second argument to the attempt method, which will keep the user authenticated indefinitely (or until they manually logout):

Authenticating A User And "Remembering" Them

if (Auth::attempt(array('email' => $email, 'password' => $password), true))
{
    // The user is being remembered...
}

Note: If the attempt method returns true, the user is considered logged into the application.

You also may add extra conditions to the authenticating query:

Authenticating A User With Conditions

if (Auth::attempt(array('email' => $email, 'password' => $password, 'active' => 1)))
{
    // The user is active, not suspended, and exists.
}

Once a user is authenticated, you may access the User model / record:

Accessing The Logged In User

$email = Auth::user()->email;

To simply log a user into the application by their ID, use the loginUsingId method:

Auth::loginUsingId(1);

The validate method allows you to validate a user's credentials without actually logging them into the application:

Validating User Credentials Without Login

if (Auth::validate($credentials))
{
    //
}

You may also use the once method to log a user into the application for a single request. No sessions or cookies will be utilized.

Logging A User In For A Single Request

if (Auth::once($credentials))
{
    //
}

Logging A User Out Of The Application

Auth::logout();

Manually Logging In Users

If you need to log an existing user instance into your application, you may simply call the login method with the instance:

$user = User::find(1);

Auth::login($user);

This is equivalent to logging in a user via credentials using the attempt method.

Protecting Routes

Route filters may be used to allow only authenticated users to access a given route. Laravel provides the auth filter by default, and it is defined in app/filters.php.

Protecting A Route

Route::get('profile', array('before' => 'auth', function()
{
    // Only authenticated users may enter...
}));

CSRF Protection

Laravel provides an easy method of protecting your application from cross-site request forgeries.

Inserting CSRF Token Into Form

<input type="hidden" name="_token" value="<?php echo csrf_token(); ?>">

Validate The Submitted CSRF Token

Route::post('register', array('before' => 'csrf', function()
{
    return 'You gave a valid CSRF token!';
}));

HTTP Basic Authentication

HTTP Basic Authentication provides a quick way to authenticate users of your application without setting up a dedicated "login" page. To get started, attach the auth.basic filter to your route:

Protecting A Route With HTTP Basic

Route::get('profile', array('before' => 'auth.basic', function()
{
    // Only authenticated users may enter...
}));

By default, the basic filter will use the email column on the user record when authenticating. If you wish to use another column you may pass the column name as the first parameter to the basic method:

return Auth::basic('username');

You may also use HTTP Basic Authentication without setting a user identifier cookie in the session, which is particularly useful for API authentication. To do so, define a filter that returns the onceBasic method:

Setting Up A Stateless HTTP Basic Filter

Route::filter('basic.once', function()
{
    return Auth::onceBasic();
});

Password Reminders & Reset

Sending Password Reminders

Most web applications provide a way for users to reset their forgotten passwords. Rather than forcing you to re-implement this on each application, Laravel provides convenient methods for sending password reminders and performing password resets. To get started, verify that your User model implements the Illuminate\Auth\Reminders\RemindableInterface contract. Of course, the User model included with the framework already implements this interface.

Implementing The RemindableInterface

class User extends Eloquent implements RemindableInterface {

    public function getReminderEmail()
    {
        return $this->email;
    }

}

Next, a table must be created to store the password reset tokens. To generate a migration for this table, simply execute the auth:reminders Artisan command:

Generating The Reminder Table Migration

php artisan auth:reminders

php artisan migrate

To send a password reminder, we can use the Password::remind method:

Sending A Password Reminder

Route::post('password/remind', function()
{
    $credentials = array('email' => Input::get('email'));

    return Password::remind($credentials);
});

Note that the arguments passed to the remind method are similar to the Auth::attempt method. This method will retrieve the User and send them a password reset link via e-mail. The e-mail view will be passed a token variable which may be used to construct the link to the password reset form. The user object will also be passed to the view.

Note: You may specify which view is used as the e-mail message by changing the auth.reminder.email configuration option. Of course, a default view is provided out of the box.

You may modify the message instance that is sent to the user by passing a Closure as the second argument to the remind method:

return Password::remind($credentials, function($message, $user)
{
    $message->subject('Your Password Reminder');
});

You may also have noticed that we are returning the results of the remind method directly from a route. By default, the remind method will return a Redirect to the current URI. If an error occurred while attempting to reset the password, an error variable will be flashed to the session, as well as a reason, which can be used to extract a language line from the reminders language file. If the password reset was successful, a success variable will be flashed to the session. So, your password reset form view could look something like this:

@if (Session::has('error'))
    {{ trans(Session::get('reason')) }}
@elseif (Session::has('success'))
    An e-mail with the password reset has been sent.
@endif

<input type="text" name="email">
<input type="submit" value="Send Reminder">

Resetting Passwords

Once a user has clicked on the reset link from the reminder e-mail, they should be directed to a form that includes a hidden token field, as well as a password and password_confirmation field. Below is an example route for the password reset form:

Route::get('password/reset/{token}', function($token)
{
    return View::make('auth.reset')->with('token', $token);
});

And, a password reset form might look like this:

@if (Session::has('error'))
    {{ trans(Session::get('reason')) }}
@endif

<input type="hidden" name="token" value="{{ $token }}">
<input type="text" name="email">
<input type="password" name="password">
<input type="password" name="password_confirmation">

Again, notice we are using the Session to display any errors that may be detected by the framework while resetting passwords. Next, we can define a POST route to handle the reset:

Route::post('password/reset/{token}', function()
{
    $credentials = array('email' => Input::get('email'));

    return Password::reset($credentials, function($user, $password)
    {
        $user->password = Hash::make($password);

        $user->save();

        return Redirect::to('home');
    });
});

If the password reset is successful, the User instance and the password will be passed to your Closure, allowing you to actually perform the save operation. Then, you may return a Redirect or any other type of response from the Closure which will be returned by the reset method. Note that the reset method automatically checks for a valid token in the request, valid credentials, and matching passwords.

Also, similarly to the remind method, if an error occurs while resetting the password, the reset method will return a Redirect to the current URI with an error and reason.

Encryption

Laravel provides facilities for strong AES-256 encryption via the mcrypt PHP extension:

Encrypting A Value

$encrypted = Crypt::encrypt('secret');

Note: Be sure to set a 32 character, random string in the key option of the app/config/app.php file. Otherwise, encrypted values will not be secure.

Decrypting A Value

$decrypted = Crypt::decrypt($encryptedValue);

You may also set the cipher and mode used by the encrypter:

Setting The Cipher & Mode

Crypt::setMode('ctr');

Crypt::setCipher($cipher);
Fork me on GitHub